It replaces an earlier one, built by Dennis Ferguson inwhich required a special line discipline to preprocessed the signal. The new driver includes more powerful algorithms implemented directly in the driver and requires no preprocessing. An ordinary shortwave receiver can be tuned manually to one of these frequencies or, in the case of ICOM receivers, the receiver can be tuned automatically as propagation conditions change throughout the day and night.
The performance of this driver when tracking the station is ordinarily better than 1 ms in time with frequency drift less than 0. The driver can use the modem to receive the radio signal and demodulate the data or, if available, the driver can use the audio codec of the Sun workstation or another with compatible audio interface. In the latter case, the driver implements the modem using DSP routines, so the radio can be connected directly to either the microphone on line input port.
They include automatic gain control AGCselectable audio codec port and signal monitoring capabilities. For a discussion of these common features, as well as a guide to hookup, debugging and monitoring, see the Reference Clock Audio Drivers page. Ordinarily, the driver poll interval is set to 14 about 4.
As long as the clock is set or verified at least once during this interval, the NTP algorithms will consider the source reachable and selectable to discipline the system clock. However, if this does not happen for eight poll intervals, the algorithms will consider the source unreachable and some other source will be chosen if available to discipline the system clock.
The decoding algorithms process the data using maximum-likelihood techniques which exploit the considerable degree of redundancy available in each broadcast message or burst.Congratulation wishes on promotion
As described below, every character is sent twice and, in the case of format A bursts, the burst is sent eight times every minute. In the case of format B bursts, which are sent once each minute, the burst is considered correct only if every character matches its repetition in the burst.
In the case of format A messages, a majority decoder requires at least six repetitions for each digit in the timecode and more than half of the repetitions decode to the same digit. Every character in every burst provides an independent timestamp upon arrival with a potential total of over 60 timestamps for each minute. A timecode in the format described below is assembled when all bursts have been received in the minute.
The timecode is considered valid and the clock set when at least one valid format B burst has been decoded and the above requirements are met. The yyyy year field in the timecode indicates whether a valid format B burst has been received. Upon startup, this field is initialized at zero; when a valid format B burst is received, it is set to the current Gregorian year. The q quality character field in the timecode indicates whether a valid timecode has been determined. If any of the high order three bits of this character are set, the timecode is invalid.
Once the clock has been set for the first time, it will appear reachable and selectable to discipline the system clock, even if the broadcast signal is lost. Since the signals are almost always available during some period of the day and the NTP clock discipline algorithms are designed to work well even in this case, it is unlikely that the system clock could drift more than a few tens of milliseconds during periods of signal loss.
Fax Demodulator and Fax Decoder
To protect against this most unlikely situation, if after four days with no signals, the clock is considered unset and resumes the synchronization procedure from the beginning. The last three fields in the timecode are useful in assessing the quality of the radio channel during the most recent minute bursts were received.
The bcnt field shows the number of format A bursts in the range The dist field shows the majority decoder distance, or the minimum number of sample repetitions for each digit of the timecode in the range The tsmp field shows the number of timestamps determined in the range For a valid timecode, bcnt must be at least 3, dist must be greater than bcnt and tsmp must be at least At each phase a new baseband signal value from the DSP modem is shifted into the corresponding register and the maximum and minimum over all 11 samples computed.
This establishes a slice level midway between the maximum and minimum over all stages.CHU transmissions are made continuously on 3. An ordinary shortwave receiver can be tuned manually to one of these frequencies or, in the case of ICOM receivers, the receiver can be tuned automatically as propagation conditions change throughout the day and season.
If compiled for a modem, the driver uses it to receive the radio signal and demodulate the data. If compiled for the audio codec, it requires a sampling rate of 8 kHz and m -law companding to demodulate the data. This is the same standard as used by the telephone industry and is supported by most hardware and operating systems, including Solaris, FreeBSD and Linux, among others.
The radio is connected via an optional attenuator and cable to either the microphone or line-in port of a workstation or PC. In this implementation, only one audio driver and codec can be supported on a single machine. In general and without calibration, the driver is accurate within 1 ms relative to the broadcast time when tracking a station.
However, variations up to 0.
In Newark DE, km from the transmitter, the predicted one-hop propagation delay varies from 2. When not tracking the station the accuracy depends on the computer clock oscillator stability, ordinarily better than 0.
The long-term mean offset varies up to 0.
The processor load due to the driver is 0. The driver performs a number of error checks to protect against overdriven or underdriven input signal levels, incorrect signal format or improper hardware configuration. The specific checks are detailed later in this page. Note that additional checks are done elsewhere in the reference clock interface routines.
They include automatic gain control AGCselectable audio codec port and signal monitoring capabilities. For a discussion of these common features, as well as a guide to hookup, debugging and monitoring, see the Reference Clock Audio Drivers page. The driver processes 8-kHz m -law companded codec samples using maximum-likelihood techniques which exploit the considerable degree of redundancy available in each broadcast message or burst.
As described below, every character is sent twice and, in the case of format A bursts, the burst is sent eight times every minute. The single format B burst is considered correct only if every character matches its repetition in the burst. For the eight format A bursts, a majority decoder requires more than half of the 16 repetitions for each digit decode to the same value.
Every character in every burst provides an independent timestamp upon arrival with a potential total of 60 timestamps for each minute. A timecode is assembled when all bursts have been received in each minute. The timecode is considered valid and the clock set when at least one valid format B burst has been decoded and the majority decoder declares success.
Once the driver has synchronized for the first time, it will appear reachable and selectable to discipline the system clock. It is normal on occasion to miss a minute or two due to signal fades or noise.The RadioRaft software package includes the complete documentation in 2 files: the RadioRaft user's main guide and the RadioRaft modes user's guide.
You may read them right now from your browser. They are also available from the "Help" menu when RadioRaft is running.
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See Klingenfuss Publication to obtain more information on books about radio decoding and on frequency lists. Here is the list of modes by alphabetical order. Click the mode to get more details by entering the RadioRaft mode user's guide. What you need to do is: Download the software to your PC file Raft EXE for a quick start, or see the file ReadMe.
RadioRaft 3. Before you go any further, just take a look at the Screen Shots. RadioRaft is only compatible with Windows 98 and previous versions. RadioRaft is not compatible with Windows or XP. Faster the baud rate, worse the error rate: Windows slows the real time decoding process even if there is no other applications working in the same time.
At bauds or more it's not possible to get a correct decoding under Windows. See the section Download RadioRaft to get them. One permits to launch RadioRaft in real mode DOS as you would reboot your PC, the other one to run RadioRaft in the multi-task Windows environment with the inconvenient mentioned above. Put these files onto your desktop or in the RadioRaft folder with shortcuts onto your desktop. You may also modify the icon properties and choose the Window size in the "program" tab.
Back to Pervisell Ham Page. Display, Printing. Possible window to display the status of the reception phasing, repetitions, errors Automatic speed detection. Automatic shift detection. Possible display of special non printable characters. Automatic signal tracking no need to precisely tune the receiver.Log function kuta
Several available video modes. DIGIT mode for bit by bit analysis, with numerous options.Dejting ljusdal
Parameters of the automatic decoding strategy are modifiable by user. Set of particular options for the most of modes.A lot of our articles have to do with choosing the right product or setting it up properly, but sometimes you need to know how to use what you have. In fact, most of the time I see people using whatever surround mode happens to be engaged on the receiver. Occasionally, they wonder why everything sounds weird, or they click the button until they get a lot of program material in the surrounds.
There are two surround sound modes I think everyone should be very familiar with. There are variations, but in general, most AV receivers have these. The first is Direct, Straight, or Pure Direct mode. In either case, Pure Direct mode will feed that sound directly to the amplifiers and bypass any DSP processing that might otherwise color the signal.
That means it bypasses your bass management settings and tone controls. Often, Pure Direct will also turn off your video circuitry. It is meant to use the amps in your receiver and not much else. Since you may have a subwoofer in your system, Pure Direct may not be what you want, unless you want to bypass that as well.
One of the most practical and fun DSP modes that exists in nearly every AV receiver is the 7-channel Stereo or All-Channel Stereo mode that sends a stereo signal to every pair of amps in your receiver and often a summed mono signal to your center channel as well. The result is a lot of sound in your theater. Some Party modes will also engage the additional Zones you may be using. On either case, this mode is a boon for creating tons of sound-particularly in a larger room.
That leaves all the rest of the DSP surround modes. In Fortunately, most AV receiver manufacturers with the notable exception of one or two holdouts have opted to limit the amount of DSP modes available on newer products. When he's not reviewing tools or playing with the latest AV receiver or loudspeaker, Clint enjoys life as a husband, father and avid reader.
InClint was invited to be part owner in what was then The Audioholics Store later to become Audiogurus. Today, he hopes his efforts at Audiogurus will provide enthusiasts and DIYers with reliable and engaging home theater reviews to help them make better purchasing decisions. I appreciate our music system now, the sound is tremendous and really plays well after I read this article- great info. Adventure sci-fi.
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Iv Been using not straight but surround standard on my Z9. Thank you. I have a 7. If I switch to neural X it will play the rear back surrounds. When I play the same movie through blu-Ray every thing is fine. Now if we can just get a guide that would tell us how best to set our receivers to optimally experience these formats. Your email address will not be published.
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December 22, at am.This information is based on one of my first telemetry decodes and can be outdated on some points. But never the less the information can still be useful for those that start with decoding Satellite telemetry. This information can also be used for other baud rates.
This information also applies to other satellites that use some kind of packet digital mode. Lets start with the basic reception. I downloaded SDR uncompressed the zip file and placed everything in a directory I created for this purpose.
The configure option is to fine tune the FCD and I will not go into that in this article. If everything went well, you now hear audio coming from your speakers and you can listen to all the stations your antenna and FUNcube are capable of receiving. Just play with the frequency and get acquainted with this wonderfull piece of soft- and hardware.
This also applies for other software that requires audio input from your receiver So now before we begin with AGW Packet Engine there is a tricky part. You hear the audio coming from your speakers but we have to find a way to use this as an input for AGWPE.
This can be a pain. I am fortunate that I can activate audio mixer within Windows 7. There is a catch, there is an option show disabled devices within Windows 7 when you open the audio properties, in my case I could enable the mixer and use this to route audio out to the mixer and use that as a input for AGWPE. Typical application for the Virtual Audio Cable is to route your sound to an audio software in order to record and analyze it.
Link to Separate Software modems page. AGW Packet Engine:. When this is done check options again and compare with the image on this page where the settings are shown. Here you can for example see the onair baudrate that we want to decode. If you need or want to adjust the onair baud rate this and the TNC commands tab is the way to do that.
This is done in an ingenious way. Just give it try and push the connect button within the AGW OnlineKiss program, immediately you should see a message saying that it is connected to ports you configured whitin AGW Packet Engine. When you right click on the AGW tray icon you can select this option. Details can be found at Soundcardpacket. It seems that MixW also has a option to use it as a kiss modem. MixW can be downloaded from there website and you can use it for 15 days before you have to register it.
MixW will emulate a kiss TNC via a virtual null modem connection. So all software that requires a serial interface can be used with this modem setup. Now comes the tricky part, to emulate a kiss TNC and be able to connect to it, you need a virtual serial port.
This installation and configuration can be found on the following wike page. When you have installed VSP the following software will be available.Scene description generator
Select TNC emulation as shown in the bolow image. I created with VSP Manager a serial bridge between serial port 9 and serial port Now when this is all done, you can connect Online Kiss to port 9, this is the other port in the bridge configuration and test this setup.
One nice option that can help you to decode at an other time, is the record function within SDR this saves a large wav file that you can open and playback at a later time. When you alter the radio option and select IQ file wav then open the file you saved and start SDReverything that is received during the time you recorded can now be listened to again.A decoder will give the correspondent digit after detecting the two carrier frequencies according to the table.
In order to detect and distinguish the pair of frequencies sent, the common algorithms require usually the total power level of unwanted frequencies to be at least 20dB below the lowest frequency signal with a signal to noise ratio greater than 23dB.
The DTMF tone duration can be controlled partially by the module since it sends a "start playing tone" request and a "stop playing tone" request and these can be specified by the application controlling the mobile, except from time shifts introduced by the network.300 Baud Acoustic Modem Emulation & calling a BBS
The network infrastructure generates this tone perfectly aligned with specifications requirement, without introducing problem during recognition. The DTMF signal is generated by a separated source, typically a landline corded phone, and sent to the input lines of the module Uplink path.
The frequencies couples, sent on the voice channel, are digitised, encoded and sent by the digital transmission system. In the receiving device the signal would be reconstructed, but since the digital transmission of the voice channel is compressed and optimised for voice, this reconstruction depends on the kind of voice compression used for the transmission, and generally will not perfectly match the original signal.
There are four main types of compression for the voice channel and only the Full Rate one has no distortion, while the other three offer a different trouble level see figures :. DTMF tines generated by separated source The DTMF signal is generated by a separated source, typically a landline corded phone, and sent to the input lines of the module Uplink path. There are four main types of compression for the voice channel and only the Full Rate one has no distortion, while the other three offer a different trouble level see figures : Half Rate: Problems arise because of the incoming signal containing the test signal plus other frequencies, with an amplitude up to —10dBc Enhanced Full Rate: Bigger problems arise in decoding the incoming signal ,that contains the test signal plus spurious frequencies added by the voice compression process, whose amplitude could be very high, up to —10dBc.
Not only, the two useful components vary continuously theirs amplitude. Adaptive Multi Rate: This is the worst case, because it is a mixed one. Full Rate: In this case the incoming signal is stable and clean, and there is no problem to decode it since it respects the DTMF requirements.
But it is not applicable to limit the voice coding to only Full Ratebecause the network decides itself which coded is used. About us Imprint Contact Email. Back to Products.This tutorial shows how to use the Source Reader to decode audio from a media file and write the audio to a WAVE file. The tutorial is based on the Audio Clip sample.Parse tree generator
In this tutorial, you will create a console application that takes two command-line arguments: The name of an input file that contains an audio stream, and the output file name. The application reads five seconds of audio data from the input file and writes the audio to the output file as WAVE data.
To get the decoded audio data, the application uses the source reader object. The following image illustrates this process. This basic structure can be extended by adding file metadata and other information, which is beyond the scope of this tutorial.
Most of the work happens in the WriteWavFile function, which is called from wmain. The ConfigureAudioStream function configures the source reader to decode the audio stream in the source file. It also returns information about the format of the decoded audio.
In Media Foundation, media formats are described using media type objects. Essentially, a media type is a collection of properties that describe the format. For more information, see Media Types. This value includes the size of the file header. PCM audio has a constant bit rate, so you can calculate the maximum data size from the audio format, as follows:. The size values that are stored in the WAVE header are not known until the previous function completes. The FixUpChunkSizes fills in these values:.
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